is a freshwater lake model capable of predicting the vertical temperature structure and mixing conditions
in lakes of various depth on time scales from a few hours to many years.
The model is intended for use as a lake parameterisation scheme
in numerical weather prediction, climate modelling, and other numerical prediction systems for environmental applications.
FLake can also be used as a stand-alone lake model,
as a physical module in models of aquatic ecosystems, and as an educational tool.
FLake is a bulk model. It is based on a
two-layer parametric representation of the evolving temperature profile and
on the integral budgets of heat and kinetic energy for the layers in question.
The structure of the stratified layer between the upper mixed layer and the
basin bottom, the lake thermocline, is described using the concept of
(assumed shape) of the temperature-depth curve. The same concept is used to
describe the temperature structure of the
thermally active upper layer of bottom sediments and of the ice and snow cover.
The result is a computationally efficient bulk model that incorporates much of
the essential physics.
FLake incorporates (i) a flexible parameterization of the temperature profile in
the thermocline, (ii) an advanced formulation to compute the mixed-layer depth,
including the equation of convective entrainment and a relaxation-type equation
for the depth of a wind-mixed layer, both mixing regimes are treated with due
regard for the volumetric character of solar radiation heating, (iii) a module
to describe the vertical temperature structure of the thermally active layer of
bottom sediments and the interaction of the water column with bottom sediments,
and (iv) a snow-ice module. Empirical constants and parameters of
FLake are estimated, using independent empirical and numerical data. They should
not be re-evaluated when the model is applied to a particular lake. In this way, FLake does not require re-tuning, a procedure that may improve an agreement of
model results with a limited amount of data but should generally be avoided as it greatly reduces the predictive capacity of a physical model.
In order to compute fluxes of momentum and of
sensible and latent heat at the lake surface, a parameterization scheme is
developed that accounts for specific features of the surface air layer over
lakes. The scheme incorporates (i) a fetch-dependent formulation for the
aerodynamic roughness of the water surface, (ii) advanced formulations for the
roughness lengths for potential temperature and specific humidity in terms of
the roughness Reynolds number, and (iii) free-convection heat and mass transfer
laws to compute fluxes of scalars in conditions of vanishing mean wind.
5th Workshop on “Parameterization of Lakes in Numerical Weather Prediction and Climate Modelling” (LAKE 2017) held on 16-19 October 2017 in Berlin, Germany
4th Workshop on “Parameterization of Lakes in Numerical Weather Prediction and Climate Modelling” (LAKE 2015) was held on 07-09 May 2015, Évora, Portugal
The presentations and a summary of the Workshop are available at the
workshop web site: http://www.lake15.cge.uevora.pt/
Version 2.0 of The Global Lake Database version (GLDBv.2) is available developed by Ekaterina Kourzeneva and Margarita Choulga.
By now, the dataset comprises ca. 14 000 freshwater lakes and 220 saline lakes. Additionally, indirect estimates of the mean depth are provided for boreal zone lakes on the basis of their geological origin.
See Choulga et al. 2014 for details.
Volume 66 of Tellus A contains Thematic cluster on Parameterization of lakes in numerical weather prediction and climate models
with papers from the Third Workshop on Parameterization of Lakes in Numerical Weather Prediction and Climate Modelling 2012 at Finnish Meteorological Insitute, Helsinki.
Presentations are still available at the Workshop site.
Volume 64 of Tellus A with papers form the 2nd Lake workshop in Norrköping
The online tool
FLake-Global has been advertised in
"Data and Software News" of Environmental Modelling and Software.
From now on, please, cite the FLake-Global, when using it in your work, as:
Kirillin, G., et al. 2011, FLake-Global: Online lake model with worldwide coverage,
Env. Modell. Soft., in press, doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2010.12.004
Since 15 December 2010 Flake is used operationally at the German Weather Service
(DWD) within the COSMO-EU
(Europe) configuration of the COSMO model (see COSMO web site for details).
Presentations from the 2nd Workshop on
Parameterization of Lakes in Numerical Weather Prediction and Climate Modelling
at SMHI, Norrköping, September 15-17 2010 ("2nd FLake Workshop")
are available now as pdf's. A special issue
of Tellus A with selected works is planned.
Volume 15, Number 2 of Boreal Environment Research - A Special Issue on results
from the 1st Workshop on Parameterization
of Lakes in Numerical Weather Prediction and Climate Modelling
Most recent FLake-related publications:
Kienel, U., Kirillin, G., Brademann, B., Plessen, B., Lampe, R., & Brauer, A. (2017).
Effects of spring warming and mixing duration on diatom deposition in deep Tiefer See, NE Germany. Journal of Paleolimnology, 57(1):37-49.
Kirillin, G., & Shatwell, T. (2016). Generalized scaling of seasonal thermal stratification in lakes. Earth-Science Reviews, 161, 179-190.
Layden, A., MacCallum, S. N., & Merchant, C. J. (2016).
Determining lake surface water temperatures worldwide using a tuned one-dimensional lake model (FLake, v1). Geoscientific Model Development, 9(6), 2167-2189.
Le Moigne, P., Colin, J., & Decharme, B. (2016).
Impact of lake surface temperatures simulated by the FLake scheme in the CNRM-CM5 climate model. Tellus A, 68.
Thiery, W., Davin, E. L., Seneviratne, S. I., Bedka, K., Lhermitte, S., & van Lipzig, N. P. (2016). Hazardous thunderstorm intensification over Lake Victoria. Nature Communications, 7.
Full list of publications