Lake-depth data set
A Global Lake Database (GLDB), version 2 (GLDBv2),
developed by Ekaterina Kourzeneva
and Margarita Choulga,
provides data required to generate external-parameter fields
of lake fraction and lake depth for numerical models of the atmosphere (e.g. NWP and climate models).
Kourzeneva et al. (2012)
and Choulga et al. (2014)
for details. Please cite these papers when using data from GLDB.
Download a gldbv2.tar.gz file.
Previous versions of GLDB are available here.
GLDBv2 contains the following information given in a number of separate files (all included in gldbv2.tar).
A binary file GlobalLakeDepth.dat is a global gridded lake-depth data file with the spatial resolution (pixel size)
of 30 arcsec (ca. 1 km at the equator).
A raster map of ECOCLIMAP2 data set is used to locate lakes on the globe,
i.e. to discriminate between the lake pixels and the non-lake pixels.
The lake depth is given in decimetres.
The lake pixels associated with lakes whose mean depth is known from in situ measurements
contain those direct mean-depth estimates.
Local depth to the bottom
(as different from mean depth used for all pixels associated with the lake in question)
is used for a number of large lakes
whose bathymetry is known in some detail.
If no direct lake-depth estimate is available for a lake pixel,
an indirect estimate based on the lake geological origin is used.
This method is applied to the boreal zone only.
If neither direct nor indirect estimate of lake depth is available,
a default value of 10 m is used.
The internal-water-type pixels identified as river pixels contain a default river-depth value of 3 m.
For other pixels (land and ocean/sea), the lake depth is zero.
A brief description of GlobalLakeDepth.dat is given in GlobalLakeDepth.txt (ASCII).
A binary file GlobalLakeStatus.dat contains the status information for the lake-depth estimates given in GlobalLakeDepth.dat
(the number of pixels and the pixels size of the two files are identical).
The status flag takes the following values:
0 if a pixel is neither lake nor river, the lake depth is set to zero;
1 if a pixel is identified as the lake pixel
but the respective lake is not present in the lake-depth data set
(files FreshWaterLakeDepthDataSet_v2.txt, SalineLakeDepthDataSet_v2.txt and LargeLakesWithBathymetry_v2.txt, see below),
a default lake depth of 10 m is used;
2 if a lake pixel is associated with a known lake but the lake depth is missing in the lake-depth data set,
a default lake depth of 10 m is used;
3 if a lake pixel is associated with the lake whose mean or local depth is known from in situ measurements,
the ("true") lake-depth value from the lake-depth data set is used;
4 if a pixel is identified as the river pixel, a default river depth of 3 m is used;
5 if a pixel is the lake pixel and the lake depth is estimated indirectly by the expert evaluation method;
6 if a pixel is the lake pixel and the lake depth is estimated indirectly by the geographic method;
and 7 if a pixel is the lake pixel and the lake depth is estimated indirectly by the geomorphologic method.
A brief description of GlobalLakeStatus.dat is given in GlobalLakeStatus.txt (ASCII).
The data used to develop the above binary files,
indirect methods to estimate the lake depth
and the mapping procedures are described in detail in
Kourzeneva et al. (2012)
and Choulga et al. (2014).
FreshWaterLakeDepthDataSet_v2.txt and SalineLakeDepthDataSet_v2.txt (ASCII)
contain the lists of fresh-water lakes and saline lakes, respectively, included into GLDBv2.
Each lake is identified with its location (geographical co-ordinates) and its international name.
Whenever available, the local name used in the country where the lake is located,
the lake mean depth, its maximum depth, and its surface area are given.
The lakes in the lists are ordered with respect to the continent and the country of their location.
The continents and the countries are ordered alphabetically.
Major sources of data are given.
LargeLakesWithBathymetry_v2.txt (ASCII) contains the list of lakes
for which a detailed bathymetric information is available.
ProjectLake2.tar contains FORTRAN 90 software
(files ProjectLake.f90, Bitmap.f90, Coor2Num.f90 and inpoly.f90)
that help to project (aggregate) the lake-depth data onto a target grid of an atmospheric model.
A SUBROUTINE ProjectLake computes the lake fraction, the lake depth and the value of status flag
in a polygon specified through geographical lat-lon co-ordinates of its vertices.
The most probable lake depth and the most probable status flag are computed by default
(this choice is recommended by E. Kourzeneva).
Optionally, the average depth and the average status flag can be computed.
Notice that the result depends on how the lake-depth range considered is divided
into the lake-depth segments (see ProjectLake.f90 for details).
Please contact Ekaterina Kourzeneva for the software details.
Answers to some questions commonly asked by GLDB users are given in LakeDataset_FAQ_2014.pdf.
should you have questions concerning GLDBv2,
please contact Margarita Choulga,
Russian State Hydrometeorological University,
Malookhtinsky pr. 98, RU-195196, Saint-Petersburg, Russia,
Margarita will answer your questions via e-mail within a week.
Margarita is also accessible on Skype
on Mondays from 10 to 12 a.m. Moscow time (UTC+3h).
Diverse information about lakes
Wikipedia list of lakes
World lakes database
5th Workshop on “Parameterization of Lakes in Numerical Weather Prediction and Climate Modelling” (LAKE 2017) held on 16-19 October 2017 in Berlin, Germany
4th Workshop on “Parameterization of Lakes in Numerical Weather Prediction and Climate Modelling” (LAKE 2015) was held on 07-09 May 2015, Évora, Portugal
The presentations and a summary of the Workshop are available at the
workshop web site: http://www.lake15.cge.uevora.pt/
Version 2.0 of The Global Lake Database version (GLDBv.2) is available developed by Ekaterina Kourzeneva and Margarita Choulga.
By now, the dataset comprises ca. 14 000 freshwater lakes and 220 saline lakes. Additionally, indirect estimates of the mean depth are provided for boreal zone lakes on the basis of their geological origin.
See Choulga et al. 2014 for details.
Volume 66 of Tellus A contains Thematic cluster on Parameterization of lakes in numerical weather prediction and climate models
with papers from the Third Workshop on Parameterization of Lakes in Numerical Weather Prediction and Climate Modelling 2012 at Finnish Meteorological Insitute, Helsinki.
Presentations are still available at the Workshop site.
Volume 64 of Tellus A with papers form the 2nd Lake workshop in Norrköping
The online tool
FLake-Global has been advertised in
"Data and Software News" of Environmental Modelling and Software.
From now on, please, cite the FLake-Global, when using it in your work, as:
Kirillin, G., et al. 2011, FLake-Global: Online lake model with worldwide coverage,
Env. Modell. Soft., in press, doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2010.12.004
Since 15 December 2010 Flake is used operationally at the German Weather Service
(DWD) within the COSMO-EU
(Europe) configuration of the COSMO model (see COSMO web site for details).
Presentations from the 2nd Workshop on
Parameterization of Lakes in Numerical Weather Prediction and Climate Modelling
at SMHI, Norrköping, September 15-17 2010 ("2nd FLake Workshop")
are available now as pdf's. A special issue
of Tellus A with selected works is planned.
Volume 15, Number 2 of Boreal Environment Research - A Special Issue on results
from the 1st Workshop on Parameterization
of Lakes in Numerical Weather Prediction and Climate Modelling
Most recent FLake-related publications:
Kienel, U., Kirillin, G., Brademann, B., Plessen, B., Lampe, R., & Brauer, A. (2017).
Effects of spring warming and mixing duration on diatom deposition in deep Tiefer See, NE Germany. Journal of Paleolimnology, 57(1):37-49.
Kirillin, G., & Shatwell, T. (2016). Generalized scaling of seasonal thermal stratification in lakes. Earth-Science Reviews, 161, 179-190.
Layden, A., MacCallum, S. N., & Merchant, C. J. (2016).
Determining lake surface water temperatures worldwide using a tuned one-dimensional lake model (FLake, v1). Geoscientific Model Development, 9(6), 2167-2189.
Le Moigne, P., Colin, J., & Decharme, B. (2016).
Impact of lake surface temperatures simulated by the FLake scheme in the CNRM-CM5 climate model. Tellus A, 68.
Thiery, W., Davin, E. L., Seneviratne, S. I., Bedka, K., Lhermitte, S., & van Lipzig, N. P. (2016). Hazardous thunderstorm intensification over Lake Victoria. Nature Communications, 7.
Full list of publications