Lake-depth data set
Version 1 (download a zipped file).
Developed by Ekaterina Kourzeneva, using a prototype data set of Natalia Schneider.
The Global database provides the external parameters fields for the
parameterisation of lakes in atmospheric modelling. It combines depth
information for the individual lakes from different sources with a
map. For mapping, the raster map of ECOCLIMAP2 dataset for ecosystems
was used. For some large lakes the bathymetry is included.
Additionally, the software to project the lake-related information
accurately onto an atmospheric model grid is provided.
The dataset for individual lakes contain information about freshwater
lakes (LakeDepthDataSet201002_for_web.txt.gz) and about saline lakes
(SalineDepthDataSet201002_for_web.txt.gz). By now, the dataset
comprises ca. 13 000 freshwater lakes and 220 saline lakes. The list
of data sources includes ca. 295 references; the references are
located in the headers. For each individual lake, the following
information is provided: geographical coordinates of a point on the
water surface, the mean depth of the lake, its maximum depth, its
surface area, the lake name and the name of the country where the lake
The list of the lakes with the bathymetry included is located in
The global gridded datasets (GlobalLake.tar.gz) contain the following
information on the geographical grid with the resolution of 30 sec. of
arc (approx. 1 km): 1) the mean lake depth values or the bathymetry, and 2)
the flag to estimate reliability of the lake depth information in
every pixel of the grid (= 0 - no inland water, = 1 - the lake was not
recognized by the automating mapping software, = 2 - the lake depth
value was missing in the dataset for individual lakes, = 3 - the real
depth value was used, = 4 - a river; for flags 1 and 2 it was used the
default depth value of 10 m, for flag 4 - of 3 m). Data are in binary
form provided by metadata in files-descriptions in the text form.
The lake depth field is discontinuous hence averaging of the lake
depth values is incorrect. The software (ProjectLake.tar) may help to
aggregate the lake depth data and to project the lake depth
information onto the atmospheric model grid. Different atmospheric
models use very different coordinate systems, map projections and have
very different grids. So, we propose the FORTRAN90 routine which
performs the aggregation of the lake depth information for the one
grid box of the atmospheric model grid, approximated by a polygon in
geographical coordinated. The input to the routine is the geographical
coordinates of the polygon peaks. The output is the lake fraction for
the grid box in question, the most probable depth of lakes in the grid
box in question, and the most probable flag value for the grid box in
For more details, please see
Kourzeneva, E., 2009: Global dataset for the parameterization of lakes
in Numerical Weather Prediction and Climate modeling. ALADIN
Newsletter, No 37, July-December, 2009, F. Bouttier and C. Fischer,
Eds., Meteo-France, Toulouse, France, 46-53. Use this reference also for the citation.
5th Workshop on “Parameterization of Lakes in Numerical Weather Prediction and Climate Modelling” (LAKE 2017) held on 16-19 October 2017 in Berlin, Germany
4th Workshop on “Parameterization of Lakes in Numerical Weather Prediction and Climate Modelling” (LAKE 2015) was held on 07-09 May 2015, Évora, Portugal
The presentations and a summary of the Workshop are available at the
workshop web site: http://www.lake15.cge.uevora.pt/
Version 2.0 of The Global Lake Database version (GLDBv.2) is available developed by Ekaterina Kourzeneva and Margarita Choulga.
By now, the dataset comprises ca. 14 000 freshwater lakes and 220 saline lakes. Additionally, indirect estimates of the mean depth are provided for boreal zone lakes on the basis of their geological origin.
See Choulga et al. 2014 for details.
Volume 66 of Tellus A contains Thematic cluster on Parameterization of lakes in numerical weather prediction and climate models
with papers from the Third Workshop on Parameterization of Lakes in Numerical Weather Prediction and Climate Modelling 2012 at Finnish Meteorological Insitute, Helsinki.
Presentations are still available at the Workshop site.
Volume 64 of Tellus A with papers form the 2nd Lake workshop in Norrköping
The online tool
FLake-Global has been advertised in
"Data and Software News" of Environmental Modelling and Software.
From now on, please, cite the FLake-Global, when using it in your work, as:
Kirillin, G., et al. 2011, FLake-Global: Online lake model with worldwide coverage,
Env. Modell. Soft., in press, doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2010.12.004
Since 15 December 2010 Flake is used operationally at the German Weather Service
(DWD) within the COSMO-EU
(Europe) configuration of the COSMO model (see COSMO web site for details).
Presentations from the 2nd Workshop on
Parameterization of Lakes in Numerical Weather Prediction and Climate Modelling
at SMHI, Norrköping, September 15-17 2010 ("2nd FLake Workshop")
are available now as pdf's. A special issue
of Tellus A with selected works is planned.
Volume 15, Number 2 of Boreal Environment Research - A Special Issue on results
from the 1st Workshop on Parameterization
of Lakes in Numerical Weather Prediction and Climate Modelling
Most recent FLake-related publications:
Kienel, U., Kirillin, G., Brademann, B., Plessen, B., Lampe, R., & Brauer, A. (2017).
Effects of spring warming and mixing duration on diatom deposition in deep Tiefer See, NE Germany. Journal of Paleolimnology, 57(1):37-49.
Kirillin, G., & Shatwell, T. (2016). Generalized scaling of seasonal thermal stratification in lakes. Earth-Science Reviews, 161, 179-190.
Layden, A., MacCallum, S. N., & Merchant, C. J. (2016).
Determining lake surface water temperatures worldwide using a tuned one-dimensional lake model (FLake, v1). Geoscientific Model Development, 9(6), 2167-2189.
Le Moigne, P., Colin, J., & Decharme, B. (2016).
Impact of lake surface temperatures simulated by the FLake scheme in the CNRM-CM5 climate model. Tellus A, 68.
Thiery, W., Davin, E. L., Seneviratne, S. I., Bedka, K., Lhermitte, S., & van Lipzig, N. P. (2016). Hazardous thunderstorm intensification over Lake Victoria. Nature Communications, 7.
Full list of publications